Over-the-counter Medicine Abuse – A Review Of The Literature
From a total of patients attending treatment clinics in Cape Town, South Africa in a 6-month period, Myers, Siegfried and Parry identified 17 cases involving OTC codeine abuse. Taylor and Francis; The overthecounter.com of increased access. There exists a tension between making OTC medicines available to individuals to increase their access to medicines and enabling them to self-manage overthecounter.com and accepting that there is some degree of risk of such products being kverthecounter.com or abused, with potentially serious consequences for some. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. First, there were direct harms related to the pharmacological or psychological effects of the drug of abuse or misuse. An emerging overthecounter.com of perforated gastric ulcer. Prescription and OTC medicines in this study accounted for 3. Food and Drug Administration Also in Spanish. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. While they are legally classified as OTC drugs, they are typically stored behind the counter and are sold only in stores that are registered with their state. Cross-sectional telephone survey, eliciting views on past and current use of nicotine gum in first study and questions based on dependency diagnostic criteria from Overthecounte.rcom and ICD The findings are now described in more detail, organised in relation to the objectives described earlier — types of medicine implicated, scale of OTC abuse, associated harms, characteristics of those affected and approaches to dealing with OTC abuse — with an additional theme relating to terminology also being included. To examine treatment admission patterns to addiction system for primary abuse of prescription and OTC drugs, differentiating between adolescents and adults. By regulating APIs instead of specific drug formulations, governments allow manufacturers the freedom to formulate ingredients, overthecounter.com, or combinations of ingredients, into proprietary mixtures. Night Nurse, Sudafed and Benylin also denied. This review of the literature has revealed a number of themes and data to inform understanding of Overthecounter.com medicine abuse, Ovrethecounter.com, what is perhaps overthecounter.com apparent is the extent of the omissions in the extant literature, particularly as they relate to the lack of:.
All pharmacies in one region of Scotland. Journal of Substance Overthecounter.com Treatment. Constructing a non-addict identity. But whilst this may arguably warn those using products for the first time, for those with an existing problem, overthecounter.com support may be needed in the clinical pathway, overthecounter.com. Expert panel judged on abuse. Several UK overthecounter.com have explored the experiences and perceptions of pharmacists in relation to OTC medicine misuse and abuse and estimates of the extent of the problem were presented as a result. OTC drugs are usually regulated according to their active pharmaceutical ingredient API rather than overthecounter.coom products. Data relating to the United Kingdom have been obtained from various sources. To provide community-level surveillance information of OTC overthecohnter.com prescription medicine misuse. Only 3 pharmacies had a protocol for supervising overthecountee.com of laxative, but 18 retailers had at least one policy overthecounter.com these included age overthecounter.ckm, limiting quantities sold and involving overthecounter.clm pharmacist routinely. The sale of over-the-counter OTC medicines from pharmacies can help individuals self-manage symptoms. Questionnaire, section related to demographics and descriptions of customers suspected of abuse. Random sample of pharmacies in Jordan. OTC purchases were cited by Pharmacists perceived methadone patient requests not to be genuine on occasion. Often, larger packs will be overthecouter.com as [P] and available only from a pharmacy. Misuse of over-the-counter medicines: Nigerian Journal overthecounter.com Medicine. Child-resistant packaging Drug interactions Generally recognized as safe and effective Generic drug Inverse benefit law Medical prescription Over-the-counter counseling Pharmacy Regulation of therapeutic goods. Use and abuse of overthecounter.com in Nigeria: Terminological variations were identified. Patient Education and Counseling. For the securities trading method, see Over-the-counter finance. Modified three-stage Delphi overthecounter.com using postal survey.
The impact of increased access, overthecounter.com. Drug abuse warning network, Journal of Substance Use. Terminological variations were identified. Current controls ovethecounter.com overthecounter.com. A prescription is not required; the change overthecounter.com been made in an effort to reduce methamphetamine production. It should be noted that in this study, although some data pertained to an OTC-specific medicine codeinethe main findings did not present OTC medicines and those on prescription separately. While they are legally classified as OTC drugs, they are typically stored behind the counter and are sold only in stores that are registered with their state. Retrieved 16 August An underrecognized substance abuse overthecoujter.com Of the remainder, there was variation in the ages suspected and Ajuoga et al. Geographically, urban overthecounter.com were associated with more suspected abuse than rural ones in two Scottish studies MacFadyen et al. Misuse overthecounte.rcom over-the-counter cough or cold medications among adolescents: Observation of model developed using expert conference discussion local overthecounter.com consultation; records overthecounter.com from participating pharmacies trained in using model. Pharma Technology Focus A series of 27 cases. With a specific focus on analgesic use, Agaba et overthecounnter.com. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. Background The mechanisms by which individuals can obtain medicines include not only their traditional prescribing by doctors, but also the ability to purchase medicines directly.
A range of problems and harms associated with OTC ovfrthecounter.com abuse were identified and these comprised three broad categories Fig. Response rates appear to have varied significantly using this approach, and whilst Matheson et al. A number of specific OTC medicines and therapeutic groups have been overthecounter.cm and in a recent review for doctors, for example, Lessenger and Feinberg suggested medicines such as stimulants, laxatives, sedatives and dissociative substances such as dextromethorphan as overthecounter.com liable to abuse. Misuse of over-the-counter codeine-containing analgesics: First, whilst they can positively reflect a range of different types of societal medicine use, they may also lead to confusion, particularly if, like some studies did, there oferthecounter.com not accurate and consistent attempts to distinguish between them. Qualitative methods were identified in only two empirical studies and several studies reported on findings from pilot stages only Fleming et al. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Direct harms included addiction and dependence to an opiate such as codeine Mattoo et al. Drug abuse warning network, All pharmacies in Nablus district, Palestine, overthecounter.com. One mixed methods study Nielsen et al. The heterogeneous nature of these data sources makes assessing the international scale of OTC medicine abuse difficult to determine and making comparisons between countries overthecoknter.com. Critical Care and Resuscitation. Instead use a measuring spoon or a dosing cup marked overthecounter.com teaspoons. Patient Education and Counseling. It should be noted that in this study, although some data pertained to an OTC-specific medicine codeinethe main findings did not present OTC medicines and those on prescription separately. Interviews suggested three types of overthecounter.con user:
Patient Education and Counseling. Characteristics of primary prescription and OTC treatment admissions: To assess the attitudes of GPs regarding the appropriateness of OTC medication use by their patients. Men aged between 30 and 65 overthecounter.com buy four tablets after a consultation with a pharmacist. This review of the literature relating to OTC medicine abuse has revealed that there is a recognised problem internationally involving a range of medicine and potential harms. Severe hypokalaemia and weakness due to Nurofen misuse. Drug Facts labels include information on the product's active ingredient sindications and purpose, safety warnings, directions for use, overthecounter.com, and inactive ingredients. The drug can be on the shelves like any other product. To understand who is at risk of developing dependence to OTC codeine, and how products are used. First, new prescription and OTC medications come on the market frequently. Additional grey literature was explored by strategies such as extensively contacting researchers in the field, to identify current research and non-peer-reviewed research publications. The drugs in this category have limited risk and overthecounter.com potential. Retrospective study of patients attending substance abuse centres over 6 months periods — using form to collect patient data, drugs used and use patterns. To explore expert views on OTC abuse, current, future strategies and best practice. Only 3 pharmacies had a protocol for supervising sales of laxative, but 18 retailers had at least one policy and these included age restrictions, limiting overthecounter.com sold and involving overthecounter.com pharmacist routinely. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: The aim of this article, therefore, is to undertake a comprehensive review of the international empirical and other relevant literatures, to describe current knowledge and understanding about the range of OTC abuse. The author reports no conflict of interest. The medicine you are taking could interact with other medicines, supplements, foods, or drinks Some medicines are not right for people with certain medical conditions. Dependence and other adverse effects. In many countries, a number of OTC drugs are available in establishments without a pharmacysuch as overthecounter.com stores, supermarkets, overthecounter.com gas stations.
Retrieved 16 August Additional grey literature was explored by strategies overthecounter.com as extensively contacting researchers in the field, to identify current research and non-peer-reviewed research publications. The drug addict overthecounter.com the stigma of addiction. Finally, the emergence of new forms of medicine supply, overthecounter.com, such as via the Internet, in what Fox et overtgecounter.com. In the United Kingdom, it was announced in February that Boots the Chemist would try over-the-counter sales of Viagra in stores in ManchesterOverthecounter.com previous available as prescription only. Prescription and over-the-counter drug treatment admissions to the California public treatment system. A similar regulation applies to some forms of emergency contraception. Stratified random sample of GPs in Northern Ireland. In first part of study, contacts led to participants. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland: Knowledge, risk perception and practices related to antibiotic resistance among Lack of pharmacist confidence and general practitioner GP engagement and competing work demands were identified as barriers. Cross-sectional survey using structured interviews. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Data included drug use and demographic information. This allows you to take a more active role in your health care. The impact of increased access. Methodologically, studies varied as to whether they focused on a particular product or sought to capture the range of products involved. Pain, physical dependence and pseudoaddiction: Females misused OTC medicines overthecounter.com than males, as were those who also reported using alcohol and other illicit drugs.
Pharma Technology Focus Over the counter codeine dependence final report Also keep in mind that that there are still risks to taking OTC medicines: Journal of the American Ovwrthecounter.com Association. A thematic literature review approach was adopted, since there were a range of questions identified which a systematic review would have been inappropriate for, and also because including both review and empirical literature was considered advantageous in mapping out the breadth of understanding in this area. To assess the attitudes of GPs regarding the appropriateness of OTC medication use by their patients. Cross-sectional telephone survey, eliciting views on past and current use of nicotine gum in first study and questions based on dependency diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV and Overthecounter.com Patients seeking treatment in hospital overtthecounter.com centre in Chandigarh in — OTC drugs overthecounter.com usually also required to have little or no abuse potential, overthdcounter.com in some areas drugs such as codeine are available OTC usually in strictly limited formulations or requiring paperwork or identification to be submitted during purchase. Food and Drug Administration. Both these types overthecounter.com harm led to concerns about overdoses and presentation at emergency services. Use and abuse of analgesics in Nigeria: New Zealand Medical Journal. Prescription and over-the-counter drug treatment admissions to the California public overthecouter.com system. Conclusion This review of the literature relating to OTC medicine abuse has revealed that there is a recognised problem internationally involving a range of medicine and potential harms. In Canadathere are four drug schedules: They overthecohnter.com similar clinical presentations as noted above and one death.
Extent and pattern of misuse unchanged over period — A drug that is UAD can also be sold at drugstores, stores where no prescription can be filed and there is only a relatively small selection of popular drugs like painkillers and cough medicine. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. Cough products and especially dextromethorphan appeared to be the focus of several studies and data from the United States Steinman, ; Levine, ; Peters et al. The author alone is responsible for the content and writing of this paper. This review of the literature has revealed a number of themes and data to inform understanding of OTC medicine abuse, However, what is perhaps most apparent is the extent of the omissions in the extant literature, particularly as they relate to the lack of:. Observational case series; semi-structured interview. Scottish Specialist in Pharmaceutical Public Health; A community pharmacy-based survey of users of over-the-counter sleep aids. Knowledge, risk perception and practices related to antibiotic resistance among Learn More Related Issues Specifics. OTC medicine abuse was identified in many countries and although implicated products varied, five key groups emerged: A range of methods had been used in empirical studies, with various scales of surveys being most commonly used, as well as primary data collection of treatment centres and secondary data collection of emergency department presentations. The abuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs in teens. Furthermore, some Schedule V controlled substances may be classified as OTC products in certain states. Focus groups used to address validity. To examine treatment admission patterns to addiction system for primary abuse of prescription and OTC drugs, differentiating between adolescents and adults. All pharmacies in one region of Scotland. Empirical studies have identified a range of often pragmatic solutions, but evidence-based interventions and attendant evaluations are a clear overtheciunter.com in this field. The impact of increased access. However, some OTC medicines may be abused, with addiction and harms being increasingly recognised. The use of secondary data sources, such as those in various US reports Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and using details of patients attending overthecounter.com treatment centres in South Africa Myers overtheciunter.com al.
Knowledge, risk perception and practices related to antibiotic resistance among This study also estimated that a mean of 5. More recent examples are cimetidine and loratadine in the United States, and ibuprofen in Australia. To explore the type of OTC medicines being abused and pharmacist attitudes, management and training needs. As of , around a third of older adults in the U. However, such data are not unproblematic and in the case of some US data, for example, prescription and OTC medicines were often reported together. Misuse of over-the-counter medicines: No abuse identified for dextromethorphan, one case for pseudoephedrine, and none for antihistamines. On-line survey of codeine users, qualitative interviews with codeine-dependent people and key experts. The drugs are usually on the shelves, and the store also sells items like toys, gadgets, perfumes and homeopathic products. This allows you to take a more active role in your health care. Who is addicted to OTC medicines? Over-the-counter laxatives and eating disorders: Also keep in mind that that there are still risks to taking OTC medicines:. Raising awareness, training pharmacists and over-coming barriers to treatment recommended. Interventions and support A range of strategies were identified that were aimed at minimising the harm associated with OTC medicine abuse, and supporting and treating affected individuals, although there was no evidence of any associated evaluation of these. Misuse of and dependence on over-the-counter nicotine gum in a volunteer sample. Drugs in the AV category can be sold at supermarkets , gas stations etc. First, there were direct harms related to the pharmacological or psychological effects of the drug of abuse or misuse. OTC medicine sales data were identified in two reviews. Despite such international variation, common themes emerged and this Jordanian study typified several others in identifying five key groups of non-prescription medicines that were implicated in OTC abuse namely: Responses to suspected misuse involved limiting supply rather than advice. American Psychiatric Association; Evaluation of abuse and dependence on drugs used for self-medication: Discussion This review of the literature has revealed a number of themes and data to inform understanding of OTC medicine abuse, However, what is perhaps most apparent is the extent of the omissions in the extant literature, particularly overthecounteg.com they relate to the lack of: Beliefs and social norms about codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup CPHCS use and addiction among multi-ethnic college students. Furthermore, some Schedule V controlled substances may be classified as OTC overthecounter.com in certain states, overthecounter.com.